01 October 2012

PARABOT NINUN URANG SUNDA

Ku : MAMAT SASMITA



Ninun asal kecap tina tinun, kecap lemesna nepa, nyaéta carana nyieun lawon keur bahan nyieun papakéan. Ti iraha mimitina urang Sunda bisa ninun? Teu kapaluruh. Ngan lamun ditilik tina sababaraha dongéng atawa légénda, sigana kaweruh ninun téh geus aya ti baheula mula.
Siga dina dongéng Nini Antéh, kapan kecap antéh gé asalna tina kecap kantéh nu hartina bola atawa benang. Kitu deui dina légénda Sangkuriang, Dayang Sumbi nu keur kasorang lungsé, toropong paranti ninun murag, nepi ka Dayang Sumbi ragrag ucap, sing saha nu daék pangnyokotkeun toropong mun lalaki rék dijadikeun salaki, mun awéwé rék dijadikeun dulur, ari kurunyung Si Tumang, anjing jalu.
Sedengkeun légénda Sangkuriang geus aya ti jaman baheula kénéh, lantaran dina naskah Sunda kuna Bujangga Manik  gé geus nyebutkeun carita Sangkuring.
 Dina naskah Sunda kuna Sanghyang Siksakandang Karesian (1518), rupa-rupa lawon (sigana motifna) disebutkeun aya kembang muncang, gagang sénggang, sameleg, seumat sahurun, anyam cayut, segeji, pasi, kalangkang ayakan, poléng rengganis, jayanti, cecempaan, paparakan jeung réa-réa deui. Nu ngarti kana perkara lawon disebut pengeuyeuk (ahli tekstil).
Cék kapercayaan buhun nu ngageugeuhna dina alat tinun (gedogan, aya deuih nu nyebut pakara) disebut Pohaci Dewata Heuyeuk, nepi ka lamun rek ninun kudu nyieun sasajen heula, sangkan lawon nu dihasilkeunana alus tur kuat, jeung deuih parabot ninun téh teu meunang kaléngkahan, pamali.
Hasil panalungtikan arkéologi di Banten Girang kapanggih sababaraha hulu gintiran tina taneuh porang keur nyieun benang jeung jarum tambaga. Banten Girang salah sahiji palabuhan jaman Karajaan Sunda. Ieu teh mere tanda yen di Banten Girang dina abad X geus aya kamampuh nyieun pakean, malah geus jadi barang komoditi (Sarjiyanto, makalah, Produksi Pakaian di Banten Girang dina buku Dinamika Budaya Asia Tenggara-Pasifik, IAAI Jabar, 1998).
Luyu jeung perkembanganana téknologi nyieun pakéan aya tilu tahap nyaéta nyieun kantéh tina kapas atawa kapuk, ninun nepi ka jadi lawon, sanggeus jadi lawon tuluy dikaput nepi ka jadi pakéan.
Nu rék didadarkeun dina ieu tulisan mah rupa-rupa parabot ti mimiti meresihan kapas, nyieun kantéh atawa benang nepi ka jadi lawon.

  1. Peténg
Alat paranti meresihan kapas nu rék dipaké keur nyieun kantéh. Kapas, komo kapuk mah sok aya sikina atawa runtah séjén nu kabawa, sangkan kapas alus dipakéna jadi kantéh kudu diberesihan heula.
Sabenerna nu disebut peténg téh ngan bagian nu siga gondéwa, gunana keur manteng tali nu dipaké ngeprukan kapas. Demi talina peténg disebut pondoh, tali ieu nu ngepruk-ngepruk kapas. Ari keur ngarorod kapas nu napel dina pondoh disebutna cetik. 
a. Peténg 
b. Pondoh  
c. Cetik


  
  1. Hindesan
Gunana keur ngagiling kapas bari sakalian meresihan tina siki kapas nu masih kénéh napel, bisi aya kénéh sanggeus diberesihan make peténg. Ngagiling kapas téh sangkan urat-urat kapas nu laleutik jadi leuwih ngahiji tur urat-urat kapasna jadi sajajar, sangkan dina waktuna digintir, kantéh nu dihasilkeunana leuwih alus tur leuwih kuat.
Ngaran babagian tina hindesan.
a.Alet                 b. Unjar 
c. Tanding (tali nu nguatkeun antara soko) 
d/e. Gulung 
f/g. Calingcing, disebut calingcing pédah siga buah calingcing, wangun buleudanana nu aya huntuan rada nyérong nepi ka mun diputerkeun salah sahiji nu kaduana ngilu kaputerkeun
h. Soko atawa saka          i. Hindesan          j. Dadampar atawa dumpal.

  1. Kincir
Parabot paranti malet kantéh.  Kapas sanggeus beresih tur sanggeus digiling ku hindesan, tuluy dijieun kantéh atawa benang, alatna  disebut kincir. Kincir gé sok dipaké ngagolongan benang kana palet. 
Ngaran babagian tina kincir :
a. Ajug atawa tihang kincir                     b/c. Injén
d. Kalinden                                           e. Kisi
f. (teu kapaluruh naon ngaranna)             g. Ceuli lambing
h. Pangheuleut unjar                               i. Unjar
j. Alet                                                    m. Eunteung (éngkeng)



  1. Undar (huwingan)
Jaman baheula mah supaya kantéh leuwih kuat sok maké darih (cai panggodogan beas atawa beas ketan),  kantéh nu geus meunang ngadarih dibérésan, dibébérésna dina undar.  (Dina buku De Inlanddsche Kunstnijverheid In Nederlandsch Indie, J.E Jasper dan Mas Pirngadie, 1912, undar disebut huwingan)
Ngaran babagian tina undar :
a. Suku                b. Tihang
c. Imah-imah        d. Tutunggul
e. Daun                f. Ayakan (wadah kantéh, bisa baé wadah séjén) 





  1. Gedogan
Parabot ninun jaman baheula. Cék kamus Sunda Danadibrata, disebut gedogan lantaran sora nu keur ninun saperti sora suku kuda nu néjéhan balagbag. Kantéh nu geus bérés supaya jadi lawon tuluy ditinun dina gedogan, biasana nu sok ninun téh awéwé, malah bisa ninun téh jadi salah sahiji ciri keur awéwé sangkan boga ajén (binangkit).
Ngaran babagian tina gedogan :
a. Andir                b. Pancuh         c. Unjar atawa umpak atawa dadampar
d. Cakcak atawa gedogan             e. Panggulung atawa totogan
f. Galeger              g.Titihan            h. Limbuhan
i/j. Jingjingan         k. Baréra           l. Suri
m. Hapit               n. Caor              o. Tali caor
p. Rorogan          q. Taropong        r. Palet

Ngaran séjén nu pakait jeung ninun :

Lusi nyaéta benang kantéh nu manjang sajajar jeung suku nu ninun.
Pakan nyaéta benang kantéh nu manjang ti kenca ka katuhu nu ninun ( 90 derajat jeung lusi).
Pihanéan alat keur mémérés jeung manteng kantéh, nu engkena jadi lusi dina gedogan.
Tameuh atawa beubeur tameuh nyaéta lawon nu ditinun tina kantéh pasésaan, tibatan dipiceun sok tuluy ditinun.
Raraga, sakabéh alat tinun rajeun disebut raraga.
Tutuding nyaéta sabébék awi atawa kai keur ngait atawa menerkeun atawa nyokot barang, lantaran teu karongkong ku nu keur ninun.
Golodogan alat paranti manteng kantéh bari sakalian diberesihan maké sikat nu dijieun tina tapas.

Ngaran bagian-bagian tina gedogan, numutkeun R.Hidayat Suryalaga suwargi boga ajén filosofis diantarana :
Baréra alat keur ngarapetkeun hasil tinunan ngabogaan harti kasadaran hirup teh kudu loba tobat, keur ngaraketkeun diri jeung Nu Maha Kawasa.
Caor, alat keur nyarandena nu ninun tur keur mantengkeun kanteh boga harti sareat hirup mah ukur nyarande kana papasten.
Galeger, keur pamageuh alat ninun, boga harti hirup kudu pageuh kana tekad.
Hapit paranti ngagulung lawon nu geus anggeus ditinun, boga harti eta teh hasil amal ibadah.
Jingjingan, tempat paranti ngasupkeun lusi, boga harti kudu tafakur atawa kontemplasi.

Sumber bacaan :
-          Kamus Sunda Danadibrata
-          Kamus Sunda LBSS
-      De Inlanddsche Kunstnijverheid In Nederlandsch Indie (Jilid II), J.E Jasper dan Mas Pirngadie, 1912.
-      R.Hidayat Suryalaga, makalah, MAKNA ALAT TENUN TRADISIONAL MENURUT PADANGAN HIDUP URANG SUNDA, seminar Pameran Alat Tenun di Museum Jawa Barat - Bandung, 15 Juli 2003.
-      Gambar-gambar tina buku  De Inlanddsche Kunstnijverheid In Nederlandsch Indie( Jilid II), J.E Jasper dan Mas Pirngadie, 1912
-      Sarjiyanto, makalah, Produksi Pakaian di Banten Girang,IAAG Jabar 1998 




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